PriMera Scientific Surgical Research and Practice (ISSN: 2836-0028)

Review Article

Volume 2 Issue 3

The Utilization of Orthopedic Fixators as a Means of Management of Pathologic Fractures in Young Adults and Adolescents: A Short Review

Daniel David Otobo*, Ehi Mary Ekoja, Bethrand Ozioma Chukwu, Jacob Adefila, Musa Nuhu, Yahaya Sule, David Nendang and Osas Idehen

August 11, 2023

DOI : 10.56831/PSSRP-02-055


Fixators are internal or external rigid equipment that acts as stabilizing frames to hold broken bones in their proper anatomical positions while they heal. The application of a fixator is a complex procedure that is done in the operating theatre by orthopaedic and trauma surgeons. Fixators may be temporary or permanent, however, they are often indicated in fractures. Fractures may simply be understood as a partial or complete break in the continuity of bones. They may be caused by trauma, fractures due to overuse, infections and diseases that weaken the bones. The latter is most common in children and physiologically in some women who have attained menopause. This paper however shades more lamplight on the use of fixators in the treatment of fractures that are non-traumatic in young adults. These fractures have a rather pathologic course in their aetiology.

Keywords: Pathologic Fractures; Internal; External; Fixators; young adults; adolescents; orthopaedics; bone cancer


  1. Slone RM., et al. “Orthopaedic fixation devices”. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc 11.5 (1991): 823-847.
  2. Schmal H., et al. “Flexible fixation and fracture healing: do locked plating 'internal fixators' resemble external fixators?”. Journal of orthopaedic trauma 25.1 (2011): S15-S20.
  3. Hadeed A, Werntz RL and Varacallo M. “External Fixation Principles and Overview”. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing (2022).
  4. Lowe JA. “Internal fixation for fractures”. For the American association of orthopaedic surgeons. Orthoinfo (2019).
  5. Archampong EQ, Naaeder SB and Ugwu B. “Baja's Principles and Practice of Surgery, Including Pathology in the Tropics”. Volume II. 5th Edition; Chapter 53 (2015): 1130.
  6. Ciancia S., et al. “Osteoporosis in children and adolescents: when to suspect and how to diagnose it”. European Journal of Pediatrics 181.7 (2022): 2549-2561.
  7. Bell JM., et al. “Interventions to prevent and treat corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and prevent osteoporotic fractures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy”. The Cochrane Database of systematic reviews 1.1 (2017): CD010899.
  8. Coleman RE. “Clinical features of metastatic bone disease and risk of skeletal morbidity”. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 12.20 Pt2 (2006): 6243s-6249s.
  9. Berruti A., et al. “Incidence of skeletal complications in patients with bone metastatic prostate cancer and hormone-refractory disease: predictive role of bone resorption and formation markers evaluated at baseline”. The Journal of Urology 164.4 (2000): 1248-1253.
  10. Zore Z., et al. “Surgical treatment of pathologic fractures in patients with metastatic tumours”. Collegium antropologicum 33.4 (2009): 1383-1386.
  11. Scolaro JA and Lackman RD. “Surgical management of metastatic long bone fractures: principles and techniques”. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 22.2 (2014): 90-100.
  12. Wuennemann F., et al. “[Radiologic diagnosis of pathologic fractures]”. Der Radiologe 60.6 (2020): 498-505.
  13. Lin AJ., et al. “Treatments and Sequelae of Pediatric Pathologic Proximal Femur Fractures Due to Benign Bone Cyst”. Journal of pediatric orthopaedics 42.6 (2022): e661-e666.
  14. Tomaszewski R., et al. “Surgical treatment of benign lesions and pathologic fractures of the proximal femur in children”. Archives of Orthopaedic and trauma surgery 142.4 (2022): 615-624.
  15. Avenell A, Mak JC and O'Connell D. “Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post-menopausal women and older men”. The Cochrane Database of systematic reviews 4 (2014): CD000227.
  16. Matsubara H and Tsuchiya H. “Treatment of bone tumour using an external fixator”. Journal of orthopaedic science: official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association 24.1 (2019): 1-8.
  17. McLatchie G, Borley N and Chikwe J. “Oxford Handbook of Clinical Surgery”. 4th edition (2017): 558-62.