PriMera Scientific Surgical Research and Practice (ISSN: 2836-0028)

Review Article

Volume 1 Issue 3

Whiplash Injuries: An Interventional Approach

Bilal F. Shanti*, Ihsan F Shanti and Zaynab IF Shanti

February 28, 2023

DOI : 10.56831/PSSRP-01-017


Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) occur when shifting and movement of energy, during a crash or collision, from acceleration-deceleration mechanism is transferred to the neck region. WAD is characterized by excessive extension-flexion movements, and/or excessive side bending of the head and neck, beyond the normal and regular range of motion.

     Motor vehicle collisions remain the majority of trauma responsible for WAD, nevertheless, other causes include contact sports injuries, falls, physical and domestic abuse, and other types of traumas.

     Clinical features and presentations are variable. In general, these includes neck pain, decreased range of motion at cervical spine, spasms, and tightness, headaches, arm(s) numbness or achiness, and other symptoms and signs depending on the extent of the insult. These range from fractures, joint dislocations, ligament tears, and even traumatic brain injuries/post-concussional syndrome, with its subsequent clinical sequalae.

     The trauma associated with WAD outcome can result in acute and chronic pain syndromes, functionality limitations and restrictions, psychological and psychosocial ramifications, financial crisis, unemployment, and in cases, even prolonged disability. This causes a significant economic burden on country.

     This review manuscript will review the latest in WAD approaches for interventional procedures. We base our review on relevant databases such as PubMed, Ovid-Medline, Embase, Web of Science, NIH website, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library. No Institutional Review Board permission was obtained since this manuscript does not directly involve animals or humans.

Keywords: Whiplash; whiplash-associated disorder; neck pain; chronic neck pain; motor vehicle collision; chronic pain syndrome; chronic pain; neck trauma

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