PriMera Scientific Medicine and Public Health (ISSN: 2833-5627)

Case Study

Volume 4 Issue 3

Symptomatology of Mpox Disease and Implications for Surveillance in Imo State, Nigeria

Adeniran Adeniyi A*, Eronini Ebubechi C, Olugbenga Asaolu, Simisola Adedeji, Ugwu, Adaeze Joy, Marcus Oluwadare, Faith Ehiaghe Ugba, Aibinuomo Ayomide Oluwaseyi, Tella Adedamola, Dania Oluyinka, Olayiwola Olanike Suliat, Oladele Tinuola, Daniel Musa Haruna, Adebayo O Amao, John O Ibitoye, Oluwagbemiga Obembe, Christopher Obanubi and Abdulmalik Abubakar

February 09, 2024

DOI : 10.56831/PSMPH-04-126


Mpox disease, caused by Mpox virus, a double-stranded DNA virus, genus Orthopoxvirus of the family Poxviridae has an incubation period of 6 to 13 days but can range from 5 to 21 days. The symptoms are quite diverse and this makes a number of rash-associated illnesses close differential diagnosis. This study aims to review the common symptoms associated with the disease during outbreaks in Imo State between 2017 and 2023 and the implications for surveillance.

Surveillance data from the Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS) was extracted between January 2017 and December 2023 across the 27 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Imo State. A line list of 231 suspected cases was downloaded into an excel template and analyzed using SPSS ® version 20 software. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and associations were tested using Fischer’s exact at 0.05 level of significance.

Of the 231 suspected cases, 57.1% (132) were males, 42.9% (99) were females and the modal age group was between the ages of 0-4 (32.5%). About one-fifth (21.2%, n = 49) were confirmed positive, 27 males (55.1%) and 22 females (44.9%), (p>0.05). Modal age group was 20-24 (22.4%, n=11), 18% (9) were children under 14 years, p>0.05.

Fever was a constant presentation with 68.4% (n=158) and 65.3% (n=32) of suspected and confirmed cases respectively presented with varying degrees of fever. Other modes of presentation among the confirmed cases are conjunctivitis (12.2%, n=6), cough (16.3%, n=8), photosensitivity (14.3%, n=7), fatigue (36.7, n=18 and headache (45%, n=22). Only 5.6% and 4% of suspected and confirmed cases, respectively, had knowledge of contact with an infectious source. Only 12.2% (n=6) presented with one form of lymphadenopathy contrary to literature. This might be associated with the clinical skills of the cadre of health workers who are responsible for surveillance activities at the LGA (district) level in the State. This study has been able to describe the symptomatology of Mpox during outbreaks between 2017 and 2023 Imo State. The findings have significant implications for capacity building of surveillance actors in order to improve early case detection and response.

Keywords: Mpox; Symptomatology; Outbreak; Surveillance


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