PriMera Scientific Medicine and Public Health (ISSN: 2833-5627)

Conceptual Paper

Volume 4 Issue 1

Determinants of Road Traffic Accidents in Kenya

Alfred A Osoro*

December 29, 2023

DOI : 10.56831/PSMPH-04-115


Road traffic accidents are on the increase despite interventions implemented by states, stakeholders and partners. World Health Organization (2018) has reported that more than 1.35 million people die every year on the world’s roads, making road traffic injuries a leading cause of death globally. Most of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries where rapid economic growth has been witnessed in recent years, in spite of COVID 19 pandemic, which interfered with global health and economies. In Kenya 3500 people die each year due to road crashes, while nearly 1000 are left with life threatening disabilities.

The purpose of this study was: To investigate major determinants that are associated with road traffic accidents which have also been identified by other researchers that have directly or indirectly contributed to accidents causation both in developed and in developing countries, particularly in Asia and Africa including Kenya. A systematic review was used to review the most current researches that have been conducted on road traffic accidents that caused deaths and injuries to significant road users. Literature search was conducted, using Google-scholar and Pub med. The review used 58 most current studies from a total of 120.

The study findings: Revealed that there is an increase in the number of vehicles praying on the roads, coupled with an increase of population and especially those using vehicles, and motorcycles. Intentional violation of traffic rules was reported. Poor implementation of road safety network, poor planning and design of road infrastructures were identified. Poor mechanical conditions of vehicles, over speeding, overloading, uncontrolled and mixed traffic environment were equally cited. Again, road “users” and drivers’ behavior, have significantly contributed to the increase of road traffic accidents, contributing to mortalities and morbidities. The commonly affected people are pedestrians and passengers who are between 15-29 years of age.

Conclusion: Factors contributing to accidents causation include; increased vehicles and vehicular use and human factor leading to intentional violation of traffic rules; bad roads, over-speeding and over-loading was identified to be associated with road traffic accidents. Likewise, use of unroadworthy vehicles, errors of other significant road users, poor implementation of road safety measures and poor planning and design of road infrastructures were also identified.

Recommendations: Sustainable road safety to be based on individual road user’s decision, geared towards personal responsibility, tailoring traffic environment to human characteristics by training and education, improving road network, control of speed, direction and mass to vulnerable road users.

Keywords: road traffic accidents; traffic injuries; morbidities and mortalities; sustainable safety


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